January 28, 2013

What is Gold ETF?

What is Gold ETF?

Exchange Traded Funds ("ETFs") are open-ended funds that trade on a stock exchange just like the shares of an individual company. Unlike the share of a company, each unit of an ETF represents a portfolio of stocks. So it is similar to a unit of an open-ended mutual fund but with a big difference. The difference between an ETF and an open-ended mutual fund is that the units of an ETF trade on an exchange. So the investor can trade in the ETF during market hours and the units can be sold short or margined just like shares.
Another difference between ETFs and mutual funds is the type of management. Mutual funds employ an active management strategy wherein the fund manager actively chooses the portfolio of stocks and manages them in an endeavour to outperform the fund's benchmark. However, ETFs employ a passive management strategy because they are generally designed to closely track the performance of a specific index. So the fund manager creates the portfolio based on the composition of the benchmark index the ETF is supposed to track and then passively manages the portfolio to ensure that the composition of ETF mirrors the benchmark at all times. There could be slight deviations from this strategy at times if the fund manager feels it is necessary to outweigh or underweigh certain stocks with respect to the benchmark in order to achieve a better return than the benchmark.

Advantages of ETF:

ETFs are supposed to be tax efficient because there have a lower churn of the portfolio owing to the passive management strategy.
ETFs can be traded during market hours and can be sold short or margined.
ETFs have a lower management cost than conventional mutual funds because ETFs do not have to bother about shareholder accounting. Mutual funds have to spend a considerable amount of time and effort in complying with shareholder accounting processes.

Disadvantages of ETF:

Even though ETFs are designed to track an underlying benchmark index, they may not exactly mirror the performance of the index owing to certain management costs charged by the fund.
Since ETFs are passively managed, they can not provide an active return over the benchmark during upmarket moves unlike actively managed mutual funds where the fund managers is constantly trying to beat the benchmark.
ETFs have a lower management cost than conventional mutual funds because ETFs do not have to bother about shareholder accounting. Mutual funds have to spend a considerable amount of time and effort in complying with shareholder accounting processes.

Gold ETF:

Gold ETFs are exchange traded funds that are meant to track closely the price of physical gold. So gold ETF lets you own gold in your dmat account. Each unit of the ETF lets the investor own 1gm of gold without physically owning it. Thus investing in a gold ETF provides the benefit of liquidity and marketability which are a limitation of owning physical gold. Gold ETF is liquid because you can trade in it at any time during market hours. Gold ETF is marketable because you can trade any amount in it just like a normal stock including short selling and buying on margin. Owning gold ETF also is cheaper than owning physical gold because it has no cost of carry (the cost of storing physical gold).

What are commodities?

A commodity is a physical good which has a demand for itself and the market treats all sources of supply equally without any differentiation. The price for a commodity is determined purely by global demand and supply. Commodities have emerged as a popular asset class in the recent times because they provide a good hedge against inflation because in an inflationary environment, the nominal price of commodities starts rising even though their real value is unaffected. Since the price of the commodity is usually denominated in the domestic currency, its real value in the home country is unaffected by inflation.

June 28, 2012


Structured cabling is building or campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems.

Structured cabling falls into six subsystems:
§ Entrance Facilities are where the building interfaces with the outside world.
§ Equipment Rooms host equipment which serve the users inside the building.
§ Telecommunications Rooms house telecommunication equipment which connect the backbone and the horizontal cabling subsystems.
§ Backbone Cabling connect between the entrance facilities, equipment rooms and telecommunications rooms.
§ Horizontal Cabling connect telecommunications rooms to individual outlets on the floor.
§ Work-Area Components connect end-user equipment to outlets of the horizontal cabling system.
Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centersoffices, and apartment buildings for data or voice communications, using category 5 (CAT 5E) or category 6 cable (CAT 6) and modular sockets. These standards define how to lay the cabling in a star formation, such that all outlets terminate at a central patch panel (which is normally 19 inch rack-mounted), from where it can be determined exactly how these connections will be used. Each outlet can be 'patched' into a data network switch (normally also rack mounted alongside), or patched into a 'telecoms patch panel' which forms a bridge into a private branch exchange (PBX) telephone system, thus making the connection a voice port.
Lines patched as data ports into a network switch require simple straight-through patch cables at the other end to connect a computer. Voice patches to PBXs in most countries require an adapter at the remote end to translate the configuration on 8P8C modular connectors into the local standard telephone wall socket. No adapter is needed in the U.S. as the 6P6C plug used with RJ11 telephone connections is physically compatible with the larger 8P8C (RJ-45) socket and the wiring of the 8P8C is compatible with RJ11. In the UK, an adapter must be present at the remote end as the 6-pin BT socket is physically incompatible with 8P8C.
It is common to color code patch panel cables to identify the type of connection, though structured cabling standards do not require it, except in the demarcation wall field.
Cabling standards demand that all eight connectors in Cat5/5e/6 cable are connected, resisting the temptation to 'double-up' or use one cable for both voice and data.

May 30, 2012

Nobel Price for Literature

2011- Tomas Transtromer
2010- Mario Vargas Liosa
2009- Herta Muller
2008- Jean-Marie Gustave
2007- Doris Lessing

updates will be done later

May 5, 2012

National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT)

Meaning of National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) System and How does the NEFT system operate
Q.1. What is NEFT System?
Ans National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) system is a nation wide funds transfer system to facilitate transfer of funds from any bank branch to any other bank branch.
Q. 2. Are all bank branches in the system part of the funds transfer network?
Ans No. As on January 31, 2007, 18500 branches of 53 banks are participating. Steps are being taken to widen the coverage both in terms of banks and branches.
Q.3. Whether the system is centre specific or has any geographical restriction?
Ans No, there is no restriction of centres or of any geographical area inside the country. The system uses the concept of centralised accounting system and the bank’s account, that are sending or receiving the funds transfer instructions, gets operated at one centre, viz, Mumbai only. The individual branches participating in NEFT could be located anywhere across the country, as detailed in the list provided on our website.
Q.4. What is the funds availability schedule for the beneficiary?
Ans The beneficiary gets the credit on the same Day or the next Day depending on the time of settlement.
Q.5. How does the NEFT system operate?
Step-1: The remitter fills in the NEFT Application form giving the particulars of the beneficiary (bank-branch,beneficiary’s name, account type and account number) and authorises the branch to remit the specified amount tothe beneficiary by raising a debit to the remitter’s account. (This can also be done by using net banking services offered by some of the banks.)
Step-2: The remitting branch prepares a Structured Financial Messaging Solution (SFMS) message and sends it to its Service Centre for NEFT.
Step-3: The Service Centre forwards the same to the local RBI (National Clearing Cell, Mumbai) to be included for the next available settlement. Presently, NEFT is settled in six batches at 0930, 1030, 1200, 1300, 1500 and 1600 hours on weekdays and 0930, 1030 and 1200 hours on Saturdays
Step-4: The RBI at the clearing centre sorts the transactions bank-wise and prepares accounting entries of net debit or credit for passing on to the banks participating in the system. Thereafter, bank-wise remittance messages are transmitted to banks.
Step-6: The receiving banks process the remittance messages received from RBI and effect the credit to the beneficiaries’ accounts.
Q.6. How is this NEFT System an improvement over the existing RBI-EFT System?
Ans The RBI-EFT system is confined to the 15 centres where RBI is providing the facility, where as there is no such restriction in NEFT as it is based on the centralised concept. The detailed list of branches of various banks participating in NEFT system is available on our website. The system also uses the state-of-the-art technology for the communication, security etc, and thereby offers better customer service.
Q.7. How is it different from RTGS and EFT?
Ans: NEFT is an electronic payment system to transfer funds from any part of country to any other part of the country and works on Net settlement, unlike RTGS that works on gross settlement and EFT which is restricted to the fifteen centers only where RBI offices are located.
Q.8. Any limit on the amount of individual transaction?
Ans There is no value limit for individual transactions.
Q.9. What about Processing Charges/Service Charges
Ans While RBI has waived the processing charges till March 31, 2008, levy of service charges by banks is left to the discretion of the respective banks. The bank-wise details of charges levied are available on the RBI website.
Q.10. How I will know which are the branches participating in the NEFT?
Ans RBI publishes the list of bank branches participating in the NEFT on its website i.e. www.rbi.org.in .
Q.11. What is IFS Code (IFSC)? How it is different from MICR code?
Ans Indian Financial System Code (IFSC) is an alpha numeric code designed to uniquely identify the bank-branches in India. This is 11 digit code with first 4 characters representing the banks code, the next character reserved as control character (Presently 0 appears in the fifth position) and remaining 6 characters to identify the branch. The MICR code has 9 digits to identify the bank-branch.
Q.12. How I will know, what is the IFS Code of my bank-branch?
Ans RBI had since advised all the banks to print IFSC on cheques leaves issued to their customers. You may also contact your bank-branch and get the IFS Code of that branch.
Q.13. Whom I can contact, in case of non-credit or delay in credit to the beneficiary account?
Ans Contact your bank / branch. If the issue is not resolved satisfactorily, the Customer Service Department of RBI at-
The Chief General Manager,
Reserve Bank of India,
Customer Service Department,
1st Floor, Amar Building, Fort,
Q.14. Is it necessary to have a bank account to originate the NEFT transaction?
Ans Yes, NEFT is an account to account funds transfer system.
Q.15. Is it necessary that the beneficiary should have an account at the destination bank-branch?
Ans Yes, NEFT is an account to account funds transfer system.
Q.16. Can I receive foreign remittances through NEFT?
Ans This system can be used only for remitting Indian Rupee among the participating banks within the country.
Q.17. Can I send remittances abroad using the NEFT?
Ans No
Q.18. Can I originate a transaction to receive funds from another account?
Ans No
Q.19. Can I send/receive funds from/to NRI accounts?
Ans: Yes, subject to applicability of provisions of FEMA
Q.20. Would the customer receive an acknowledgement of money credited to the beneficiary?
Ans: No, however electronic acknowledgement is generated for the customer that his money is received by the beneficiary at the sender branch.
Q.21. Would the remitting customer get back the money if it is not credited to the beneficiary’s account?
Ans: Yes, the remitting customer gets back the money if it is not credited to the beneficiary account.
Q.22. Till what time NEFT service window is available?
Ans: There are six settlements at 0930, 1030, 1200, 1300, 1500 and 1600 hours on weekdays and 0930, 1030 and 1200 hours on Saturdays.
Q.23. What is the essential information that the remitting customer would have to furnish for the remittance to be effected?
Ans: The essential information that the remitting customer has to furnish is:
·         Beneficiary details such as beneficiary name and account number
·         Name and IFSC of the beneficiary bank branch.
Q.24. Is there any way a remitting customer can track the remittance transaction?
Ans: The remitting customer can track the remitting transaction through the remitting branch only, as the remitting branch is informed about the status of the remitted transactions.

January 23, 2012

What is a Repo Rate?

What is a Repo Rate?

Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it from RBI. Repo rate is the rate at which our banks borrow rupees from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive